If you installed Linux ubuntu there are few things left to adjust for better user experience. This guide will show you what to do after installing Linux ubuntu operating system. First of all, you should update your newly installed system! To do so, activate Linux terminal by pressing ctrl + Alt + T keys!
Coming from a “Windows world” it must be very frightening for you to see terminal where you must type some commands in order to do certain tasks, but in Linux – the terminal is going to be “your best friend”. First example will be about updating and upgrading Linux ubuntu.
After installing Linux ubuntu – it’s time to learn meaning of sudo
This commands consists of three parts, sudo ,apt and (update or upgrade). Sudo means the superuser, this is meant to give you higher privileges. Higher level system administration tasks can be preformed only as sudo user(superuser).
Apt command provides a high-level commandline interface for the package management system. You see, this make sense! We could simply describe this commands like this: – “Superuser is dealing with apt in order to do sysadmin tasks such as update / upgrade or install.”
IMPORTANT: During execution sudo commands the system will prompt password. While typing passwords in terminal there will be no visible charachters on screen, meaning – “it will be invisible!”
In terminal you will type:
sudo apt update
This command updates packages information or simply said – “it refreshes linux ubuntu components to see if there is new improvements and stuff available” After update it’s time for upgrade:
sudo apt upgrade
It’s time to upgrade our packages and all components, after executing upgrade you must confirm action with letter y (meaning yes). Let’s see this illustration:
As you can see in examples above, in Linux world there are some strict rules who can preform higher system administration tasks. Regular users without sudo privileges can’t do system administration tasks, that’s why Linux is very secure system.
Turning off grub countdown
In my previous tutorials on “How to install Windows and Linux” (regarding Windows and Linux dual boot mode), there was a grub menu where you can choose desired operating system, but with some sort of “countdown”.
This countdown lasts only 10 seconds, forgetting to choose your desired operating system grub will load default system (which is ubuntu) and sometimes we don’t want that.
It would be really nice if we could turn this feature off, because many times we don’t want to choose first default system in countdown order. This is how we do it:
sudo gedit /etc/default/grub.cfg
Superuser in action again! This time he activate graphical text editor to edit file called grub.cfg in /etc/default folder.
In this file grub.cfg you have to change this parameter:
You can see how it’s being done in this larger preview editing configuration file with gedit text editor. When you change GRUB_TIMEOUT=-1 don’t forget to click save.
In order to update grub menu type following command:
Reboot your computer – you’ve successfully disabled countdown! Wanna know why there was a countdown in the first place? Well, there is always for a reason!
The reason why there is a countdown at grub menu
Starting ubuntu (as guest) in qemu-kvm virtualization environment, you will want connect to it via ssh, without countdown ubuntu guest will wait infinite time for user’s system choice, furthermore the boot process will never reach runtime level for loading ssh service.
This will happened also in real “live” servers, if system crash because power loss it will try to reboot. Since there are no timeout it will stop loading services (ssh, httpd, nginx) etc.
There are plenty answers on subject – “What to do after installing Linux ubuntu” real answers lies in question – What do you want from your system to become?